2008. évi LXII. törvény
a Nemzetközi Atomenergia Ügynökség (NAÜ) keretében 1979-ben elfogadott, és az 1987. évi 8. törvényerejű rendelettel kihirdetett nukleáris anyagok fizikai védelméről szóló Egyezménynek a NAÜ által szervezett diplomáciai konferencia keretében, 2005. július 8-án aláírt módosítása kihirdetéséről1
1. § Az Országgyűlés e törvénnyel felhatalmazást ad az 1987. évi 8. törvényerejű rendelettel kihirdetett nukleáris anyagok fizikai védelméről szóló egyezmény (a továbbiakban: Egyezmény) módosítása kötelező hatályának elismerésére.
2. § Az Országgyűlés az Egyezmény módosítását (a továbbiakban: Egyezmény módosítása) e törvénnyel kihirdeti.
3. § Az Egyezmény módosításának hiteles angol nyelvű szövege és annak hivatalos magyar nyelvű fordítása a következő:
Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material)~„Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material
1. The Title of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material adopted on 26 October 1979 (hereinafter referred to as „the Convention”) is replaced by the following title:
CONVENTION ON THE PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF NUCLEAR MATERIAL AND NUCLEAR FACILITIES
2. The Preamble of the Convention is replaced by the following text:
THE STATES PARTIES TO THIS CONVENTION,
Recognizing the right of all States to develop and apply nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and their legitimate interests in the potential benefits to be derived from the peaceful application of nuclear energy,
Convinced of the need to facilitate international co-operation and the transfer of nuclear technology for the peaceful application of nuclear energy,
Bearing in mind that physical protection is of vital importance for the protection of public health, safety, the environment and national and international security,
Having in mind the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations concerning the maintenance of international peace and security and the promotion of goodneighbourliness and friendly relations and co-operation among States,
Considering that under the terms of paragraph 4 of Article 2 of the Charter of the United Nations, „All members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations,”
Recalling the Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism, annexed to General Assembly resolution 49/60 of 9 December 1994,
Desiring to avert the potential dangers posed by illicit trafficking, the unlawful taking and use of nuclear material and the sabotage of nuclear material and nuclear facilities, and noting that physical protection against such acts has become a matter of increased national and international concern,
Deeply concerned by the worldwide escalation of acts of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, and by the threats posed by international terrorism and organized crime,
Believing that physical protection plays an important role in supporting nuclear nonproliferation and counter-terrorism objectives,
Desiring through this Convention to contribute to strengthening worldwide the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities used for peaceful purposes,
Convinced that offences relating to nuclear material and nuclear facilities are a matter of grave concern and that there is an urgent need to adopt appropriate and effective measures, or to strengthen existing measures, to ensure the prevention, detection and punishment of such offences,
Desiring to strengthen further international co-operation to establish, in conformity with the national law of each State Party and with this Convention, effective measures for the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities,
Convinced that this Convention should complement the safe use, storage and transport of nuclear material and the safe operation of nuclear facilities,
Recognizing that there are internationally formulated physical protection recommendations that are updated from time to time which can provide guidance on contemporary means of achieving effective levels of physical protection,
Recognizing also that effective physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities used for military purposes is a responsibility of the State possessing such nuclear material and nuclear facilities, and understanding that such material and facilities are and will continue to be accorded stringent physical protection,
Have agreed as follows:
3. In Article 1 of the Convention, after paragraph (c), two new paragraphs are added as follows:
(d) „nuclear facility” means a facility (including associated buildings and equipment) in which nuclear material is produced, processed, used, handled, stored or disposed of, if damage to or interference with such facility could lead to the release of significant amounts of radiation or radioactive material;
(e) „sabotage” means any deliberate act directed against a nuclear facility or nuclear material in use, storage or transport which could directly or indirectly endanger the health and safety of personnel, the public or the environment by exposure to radiation or release of radioactive substances.
4. After Article 1 of the Convention, anew Article 1A is added as follows:
The purposes of this Convention are to achieve and maintain worldwide effective physical protection of nuclear material used for peaceful purposes and of nuclear facilities used for peaceful purposes; to prevent and combat offences relating to such material and facilities worldwide; as well as to facilitate co-operation among States Parties to those ends.
5. Article 2 of the Convention is replaced by the following text:
1. This Convention shall apply to nuclear material used for peaceful purposes in use, storage and transport and to nuclear facilities used for peaceful purposes, provided, however, that articles 3 and 4 and paragraph 4 of article 5 of this Convention shall only apply to such nuclear material while in international nuclear transport.
2. The responsibility for the establishment, implementation and maintenance of a physical protection regime within a State Party rests entirely with that State.
3. Apart from the commitments expressly undertaken by States Parties under this Convention, nothing in this Convention shall be interpreted as affecting the sovereign rights of a State.
(a) Nothing in this Convention shall affect other rights, obligations and responsibilities of States Parties under international law, in particular the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and international humanitarian law.
(b) The activities of armed forces during an armed conflict, as those terms are understood under international humanitarian law, which are governed by that law, are not governed by this Convention, and the activities undertaken by the military forces of a State in the exercise of their official duties, inasmuch as they are governed by other rules of international law, are not governed by this Convention.
(c) Nothing in this Convention shall be construed as a lawful authorization to use or threaten to use force against nuclear material or nuclear facilities used for peaceful purposes.
(d) Nothing in this Convention condones or makes lawful otherwise unlawful acts, nor precludes prosecution under other laws.
5. This Convention shall not apply to nuclear material used or retained for military purposes or to a nuclear facility containing such material.
6. After Article 2 of the Convention, a new Article 2A is added as follows:
1. Each State Party shall establish, implement and maintain an appropriate physical protection regime applicable to nuclear material and nuclear facilities under its jurisdiction, with the aim of:
(a) protecting against theft and other unlawful taking of nuclear material in use, storage and transport;
(b) ensuring the implementation of rapid and comprehensive measures to locate and, where appropriate, recover missing or stolen nuclear material; when the material is located outside its territory, that State Party shall act in accordance with article 5;
(c) protecting nuclear material and nuclear facilities against sabotage; and
(d) mitigating or minimizing the radiological consequences of sabotage.
2. In implementing paragraph 1, each State Party shall:
(a) establish and maintain a legislative and regulatory framework to govern physical protection;
(b) establish or designate a competent authority or authorities responsible for the implementation of the legislative and regulatory framework; and
(c) take other appropriate measures necessary for the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities.
3. In implementing the obligations under paragraphs 1 and 2, each State Party shall, without prejudice to any other provisions of this Convention, apply insofar as is reasonable and practicable the following Fundamental Principles of Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities.
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE A: Responsibility of the State
The responsibility for the establishment, implementation and maintenance of a physical protection regime within a State rests entirely with that State.
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE B: Responsibilities During International Transport
The responsibility of a State for ensuring that nuclear material is adequately protected extends to the international transport thereof, until that responsibility is properly transferred to another State, as appropriate.
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE C: Legislative and Regulatory Framework
The State is responsible for establishing and maintaining a legislative and regulatory framework to govern physical protection. This framework should provide for the establishment of applicable physical protection requirements and include a system of evaluation and licensing or other procedures to grant authorization. This framework should include a system of inspection of nuclear facilities and transport to verify compliance with applicable requirements and conditions of the license or other authorizing document, and to establish a means to enforce applicable requirements and conditions, including effective sanctions.
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE D: Competent Authority
The State should establish or designate a competent authority which is responsible for the implementation of the legislative and regulatory framework, and is provided with adequate authority, competence and financial and human resources to fulfill its assigned responsibilities. The State should take steps to ensure an effective independence between the functions of the State’s competent authority and those of any other body in charge of the promotion or utilization of nuclear energy.
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE E: Responsibility of the License Holders
The responsibilities for implementing the various elements of physical protection within a State should be clearly identified. The State should ensure that the prime responsibility for the implementation of physical protection of nuclear material or of nuclear facilities rests with the holders of the relevant licenses or of other authorizing documents (e.g., operators or shippers).
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE F: Security Culture
All organizations involved in implementing physical protection should give due priority to the security culture, to its development and maintenance necessary to ensure its effective implementation in the entire organization.
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE G: Threat
The State’s physical protection should be based on the State’s current evaluation of the threat.
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE H: Graded Approach
Physical protection requirements should be based on a graded approach, taking into account the current evaluation of the threat, the relative attractiveness, the nature of the material and potential consequences associated with the unauthorized removal of nuclear material and with the sabotage against nuclear material or nuclear facilities.
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE I: Defence in Depth
The State’s requirements for physical protection should reflect a concept of several layers and methods of protection (structural or other technical, personnel and organizational) that have to be overcome or circumvented by an adversary in order to achieve his objectives.
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE J: Quality Assurance
A quality assurance policy and quality assurance programmes should be established and implemented with a view to providing confidence that specified requirements for all activities important to physical protection are satisfied.
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE K: Contingency Plans
Contingency (emergency) plans to respond to unauthorized removal of nuclear material or sabotage of nuclear facilities or nuclear material, or attempts thereof, should be prepared and appropriately exercised by all license holders and authorities concerned.
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE L: Confidentiality
The State should establish requirements for protecting the confidentiality of information, the unauthorized disclosure of which could compromise the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities.
(a) The provisions of this article shall not apply to any nuclear material which the State Party reasonably decides does not need to be subject to the physical protection regime established pursuant to paragraph 1, taking into account the nature of the material, its quantity and relative attractiveness and the potential radiological and other consequences associated with any unauthorized act directed against it and the current evaluation of the threat against it.
(b) Nuclear material which is not subject to the provisions of this article pursuant to subparagraph (a) should be protected in accordance with prudent management practice.
7. Article 5 of the Convention is replaced by the following text:
1. States Parties shall identify and make known to each other directly or through the International Atomic Energy Agency their point of contact in relation to matters within the scope of this Convention.
2. In the case of theft, robbery or any other unlawful taking of nuclear material or credible threat thereof, States Parties shall, in accordance with their national law, provide co-operation and assistance to the maximum feasible extent in the recovery and protection of such material to any State that so requests. In particular:
(a) a State Party shall take appropriate steps to inform as soon as possible other States, which appear to it to be concerned, of any theft, robbery or other unlawful taking of nuclear material or credible threat thereof, and to inform, where appropriate, the International Atomic Energy Agency and other relevant international organizations;
(b) in doing so, as appropriate, the States Parties concerned shall exchange information with each other, the International Atomic Energy Agency and other relevant international organizations with a view to protecting threatened nuclear material, verifying the integrity of the shipping container or recovering unlawfully taken nuclear material and shall:
(i) co-ordinate their efforts through diplomatic and other agreed channels;
(ii) render assistance, if requested;
(iii) ensure the return of recovered nuclear material stolen or missing as a consequence of the above-mentioned events.
The means of implementation of this co-operation shall be determined by the States Parties concerned.